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MGMT1001 Contemporary Business Management (Baumanis): Evaluating Web Resources

C.R.A.A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites

When using websites in your research, use the CRAAP test to evaluate the validity of the information.

CRAAP stands for:

  • Currency
    • ‚ÄčWhen was the information written or published?
    • Has it been updated?
    • Is it out of date for your topic?
    • Are the links functional?
  • Relevance  
    • Does the information answer your research question?
    • Who is the intended audience?
    • Is the information at an appropriate level?
  • Authority
    • Is the author a person, company or organization?
    • Is the author an expert on the subject?
    • Is contact information included?
    • Does the URL reveal anything?
  • Accuracy
    • Is the information supported by evidence?
    • Can you verify the information?
    • Is it peer reviewed?
    • Does the language seem unbiased?
    • Are there spelling, grammatical or other typographical errors? 
  • Purpose
    • Is the purpose to inform/teach/sell/entertain/persuade?
    • Do the authors make their intentions clear?
    • Is the point of view objective? 

Primary VS Secondary Sources

primary source is a source of information from the time being studied. It is raw data. It is an original source of data before it is analyzed.
Examples include:

  • interviews
  • speeches
  • diaries
  • original manuscripts
  • birth certificate
  • newspaper article written at the time

secondary source is a source of information written after the time being studied. It is a source that interprets or analyzes. It does not offer new evidence.
Examples include:

  • biographies
  • journal articles
  • text books
  • commentaries
  • editorials
  • literary criticisms

Evaluating Resources

Langan, K. (2018). "Scholarly versus trade versus popular: comparing 3 types of publications." WMU Libraries. Retrieved from