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C.R.A.A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites
When using websites in your research, use the CRAAP test to evaluate the validity of the information.
CRAAP stands for :
When was the information written or published?
Has it been updated?
Is it out of date for your topic?
Are the links functional?
Does the information answer your research question?
Who is the intended audience?
Is the information at an appropriate level?
Is the author a person, company or organization?
Is the author an expert on the subject?
Is contact information included?
Does the URL reveal anything?
Is the information supported by evidence?
Can you verify the information?
Is it peer reviewed?
Does the language seem unbiased?
Are there spelling, grammatical or other typographical errors?
Is the purpose to inform/teach/sell/entertain/persuade?
Do the authors make their intentions clear?
Is the point of view objective?
Primary VS Secondary Sources
primary source is a source of information from the time being studied. It is raw data. It is an original source of data before it is analyzed.
newspaper article written at the time
secondary source is a source of information written after the time being studied. It is a source that interprets or analyzes. It does not offer new evidence.
Langan, K. (2018). "Scholarly versus trade versus popular: comparing 3 types of publications." WMU Libraries. Retrieved from http://libguides.wmich.edu/celcis/articles