What is it? In-text citations, or parenthetical documentation and/or attribution means giving credit in the text (in the written paragraphs of the assignment) for the idea or quote that has been taken from the source of reference. By citing the source within the research paper it enables the readers to look to the works cited page to obtain complete bibliographical information.
How is it done? First complete the full works citated citation correctly. Completing the citation first will save you time by making it easier to determine what is to be placed in parenthesis within your research paper.
Most often only the last name of the author and the number of the page/s, on which the reference note appears, are given in parenthesis. The last sentence before the parenthesis is not punctuated until after the parenthesis is closed.
If the author's name is noted in the text, only the number of the page from which the idea or quote was taken is included in parenthesis.
When credit is given for a direct quote, the quotation marks are closed and the parenthesis is opened, but the endmark is saved and placed after the closed parenthesis.
*Note: A direct quotation of more than 4 lines is indented 10 spaces from the left margin, no quotation marks are used and the period precedes the parenthetical documentation.
Assume that the paper used information from two sources by Christopher Johnson. The first book is entitled Menus Reflecting a Culture or Tradition, and the material noted is from page 10 of this book. The second is from an article entitled "Menus Around the World," and the material noted is from page 65.
*Note: Menus would not be the word to choose since it appears in both titles.
Assume the book is authored by Eleanor Pitney, Eva Cocchi, Sharon Rady, and Doryce Kilguss, and the idea expressed is taken from page 3 of their book.
If Raymond Johnson is quoted in the article by Elliot (refer to works cited sample for the citation), the parenthetical documentation would read:
If a reference being cited has 2 or 3 authors, each last name must be listed within the parenthesis unless the authors are referred to in the sentence as attribution. Names should appear in the order listed in the original source.
If more than 3 people have authored the book or article, the first author's last name and the words et al. are used.
If there is no author/s given, use the first item listed in the works cited citation. Usually this will be the title of the article or section in quotation marks. (This is why it is very important to create a correct works cited before deciding what must be put in the in-text documentation!) Assume an article entitled "Problems with Plagiarism" has no author. Place a key word from the title in parenthesis OR begin the note with reference to the title of the article and end with the page number in parenthesis.
*Note: The key word chosen must be used consistently for any in-text citations using the same article, and the key word must distinguish that title from other similar titles.
Indirect Source When someone has been quoted in your source, and it is the words or ideas of this person that you are summarizing, paraphrasing or quoting directly, then you must make this clear by adding the abbreviation for "quoted in" to your usual parenthetical documentation.
If 2 or more sources by the same author are listed on the works cited page, the reader must be told to which book or article the text refers. This is done by including a key word from the title of the book or article in the parenthesis. (Note: Proper marking to designate the type of source must be included).
Online Sources Present Some Challenges
"In-text Citation" information, originally authored by Professor A. Smith, Retired, Johnson & Wales University, Providence Campus